This is usually at the 3 ‘0’ Clock position on the case, also known as the winder or button. Most occasions it pulls straight out to operate the hands and in some cases the date, but on some models like diving watches it unscrews from the case before it can be pulled out, this is to ensure water resistance and no dust getting into the movement, on models such as the Rolex Submariner, Breitling SuperOcean, Omega Seamasters.
These are usually at 2 & 4 ‘0’ clock depressed to stop and start the chronograph, but they can be in different locations of the case, and operate other features.
A timing device (stop watch) with one to four small dials within the main one.
This is not to be confused with Chronometer.
This is referring to the glass, it can be Mineral, Sapphire, or plastic (this is generally on older watches) sometimes called Hesalite.
Sapphire crystals are very hard and difficult to scratch, mineral glass tends to be present in less expensive watches.
The movement refers to workings inside, which can be mechanical hand wound which was the first type in watches, automatic which is also mechanical but has a auto weight to self wind the watch when worn. Quartz is a battery movement, these type of movements are accurate within seconds a year, where as Mechanicals can gain or loose several seconds a day which is normal.
Solar and Kinetic (not the same as automatic) an auto weight powers a quartz type movement, which stores power in a Capacitor.
Movements also have a number referring to the type this is called “Calibre” so the Omega movement to the upper left is a 321 Calibre.
Watch cases can be made of lots of different materials such as Steel, usually stainless, Gold of all quality, Platinum, Silver, Brass, Plastic, and in modern days Ceramic, and Titanium.
Sometimes watches consist of two materials or more, referred to as 2 colour or Bi Colour watches, a very popular combination is steel and gold.
A case most of time is in two parts, caseback and main case, the caseback can be snapped on, screwed, or have several little screws holding it on.
There are also one piece cases in which the movement is fitted into the case then the glass fitted after, like the Breilting Top Time.
The bezel on a watch is the part surrounding the glass, which can be fixed or move anti clockwise like on divers watches which would have numbers on, or it could be used for a GMT watch.
The bracelet refers to the metal that goes round your wrist which attaches to 12 and 6 o clock positions to the case with a pin or screw. Buckles on leather straps can be pin (tang) or deployment or double deployment, these are the folding type a bit like on a bracelet, leather will sometimes last longer on deployments.